Links with International Socratic Groups
Political Philosophical Academy (Philosophisch-Politische Akademie – PPA)

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PPA is dedicated to the promotion of critical philosophy and its application to social and political life, as espoused by the German philosopher Leonard Nelson (1882-1927) and his followers. In his writings, Nelson was concerned mainly with ethics, pedagogy and politics, and in all three fields tried to put his theories into practice. He was an ethical socialist, he adapted Socrates` method of searching for truth, developing the neo-Socratic method for group work, finally he founded the PPA to further develop and promote his philosophical ideas. Founded in 1922, PPA was, of course, banned by the Nazis but was re-established in 1949.

The Academy organises conferences on political and philosophical subjects, sponsors the publication of books, initiates a scientific prize competition and, last but not least, supports Socratic seminars.

Society of Socratic Facilitators (Gesellschaft für Sokratisches Philosophieren – GSP)

GSP’s purpose is to develop the practice of Socratic Dialogue, to contribute to theoretical tradition of Leonard Nelson and Gustav Heckmann (1898-1996), and to train Socratic facilitators.  An increasing number of courses have been organised by GSP in co-operation with PPA, held both in England and in Germany. GSP also contributes to the training of teachers concerned with the subject of “practical philosophy” in the school curriculum, by acquainting them with the theory and practice of Socratic Dialogue.

Dutch Network of Socratic Facilitators

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The Neo-Socratic Dialogue was introduced in the Netherlands around 1980. Most Dutch facilitators are linked by a “network” for born exchange and learning reciprocally from each other’s experiences (“intervision”). The network also promotes different forms of Socratic Dialogue designed to meet the needs of different participants working in business settings. Socratic Dialogues are also offered in secondary and higher education, and in adult education.

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